Document Type : Research Paper


Energy, Technology and sustainable development, Economic Research Institute


One of the challenging issues that have been addressed by economists is how to remove barriers in the way of export promotion. The results of various studies show that export development has positive effects on the economy as a whole. on the other hand, one of the biggest challenges for exporters in the country is due to the lack of knowledge about how to effectively market abroad. Even with advanced technology, social media tools, and digital marketing devices marketing outside of one’s borders is a big challenge for most small businesses in the country. One way businesses try to overcome this challenge is to look for new markets that are easy to do business in and identify customers in those markets. A review of the trend of export of goods based on the statistics provided by the customs office of Iran shows that the value of the export dollar during the years 2001-2018 with an average annual growth rate of 16.23% from $4.2to $44.7. In addition to the above mentioned fact about export increasing trend, the trend of the number of countries importing goods from Iran during the studied years indicates that the target markets are generally being limited from 170 countries in 2008 to 140 countries in 2014 and 147 countries in 2018. In 2018, only nine countries marked more than 80 percent of the export’s value of the country's total non-oil goods export, i.e. the development of non-oil goods exports, despite the increase in value, but for various reasons, including political and economic sanctions, has moved toward focusing on some limited countries.

In this paper, knowing the importance of export development of non-oil goods in the past two decades, and aiming of creating a vision for export development, we have identified the most important issues and barriers to exports in the form of five main categories include "macroeconomic issues", "production issues", "exporter", "rules and regulations" and "logistics and support services". We used a fuzzy AHP model Based on the opinions of exporters to prioritize the obstacles and barriers to t non-oil export development. According to the findings of this study, among of 185 obstacles and problems under the above five mentioned categories, the first ten one ranked as follows: "High cost of product", "high exchange rate related to imported raw materials", "US sanctions against the country", "high cost of transportation and transfer of product to target market", "unsuitable product pricing policy", "foreign policies of the country", " ignoring the tastes and needs of the customers in export markets", "imposing high tariff rates by target countries", "high costs of obtaining licenses for the sale of goods in export market", "high share of taxes on imports of raw materials", and "customs clearance costs".


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