Document Type : Article-Based Dissertations


1 Shahid Chamran University of AHvaz

2 Faculty of Economics of Shahid Chamran Universtity of Ahvaz

3 Candidate of Economics of Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz


For the United Nations, the overriding goal is to improve the quality of human life. Accordingly, the Human Development Index has been introduced by this organization as a measure of quality of life. The Human Development Index is a pure composite index that measures the average success of a country on three basic benchmarks of development: health, health, education and economic welfare. In this paper, the human development index (without oil) for the provinces of Iran in 2005, 2010 and 2015 based on the United Nations method. According to the results, the highest and lowest human development indices of provinces in 2005, 2010 and 2015 were 0.733, 0.751 and 0.769 for Tehran province and 0.595, 0.539 and 0.631 for Sistan and Balochistan province, respectively. After Sistan and Baluchistan, the provinces of Kurdistan, North Khorasan, Kohgiluyeh and Boyer Ahmad, and Lorestan have the lowest human development index among Iran’s provinces. The data show that the average human development of provinces in the country has increased by 3% between 2005 and 2010, while it has decreased to 0.5% between 2010 and 2015. Another result of this study is the impact of human development on the economic growth of provinces using Fuzzy Mamdani method. Implementation of the second and third laws of the fuzzy rules has shown the positive impact of human development index on economic growth as the output of the provinces fuzzy system. An examination of the components of human development indicators shows that the most important factor in the slowdown in human development is the negative growth of provincial per capita income between 2005 and 2015. In the meantime, the per capita income of the provinces has fallen by an average of about 20%. Careful examination of the findings shows that the provincial education index is a strong point of provincial human development index as it has increased from 0.577 in 2005 to 0.736 in 2015, which indicates that good developments have taken place in recent years and that education has been constantly improving. Given that the pace of improvement in human development has been modest in the years 2010-2015, it is necessary for national planners to focus on investing in education and health, which are important components of development. Also, to improve the living conditions of the provinces with low human development indexes and more poverty and deprivation, more attention should be paid to investing in education and health in these areas to increase per capita income and employment, which would reduce poverty and deprivation measures that can ultimately lessen regional and inter-provincial inequality in the country. It is also conceivable that during the past three decades the government and development planners have identified various underprivileged and underdeveloped areas in line with the findings of this paper. However, despite the authorities' attention to these areas, no significant change has been observed in the socio-economic status of these provinces, perhaps due to a one-dimensional look at the issue of development and making blind investments in these areas. Another result of this study is the impact of human development on the economic growth of provinces using Fuzzy Mamdani method. According to fuzzy rules designed in MATLAB software, the impact of human development index on economic growth of provinces is determined. Implementation of the second and third laws of fuzzy rules has shown the positive impact of human development index on economic growth as the output of the provinces fuzzy system. Careful examination of the findings shows that there is little to no relationship between human development and economic growth prior to the level of human development, while there is clearly a positive relationship afterwards


Main Subjects

- Absalyamova, G., B. Absalyamov & F.  Mukhametgalieva. (2015)  Management of the Sustainable Development of Human Capital in the Terms of Macroeconomic Instability. Journal of  Procedia Economics and Finance,vol.24, 13-17.## - Afshari, Z., S. Shirinbakhsh. & N. Ebrahimi. (2012).   The Comparative Study of  Effect of  the Optimal Size of  Government Consumption and Investment Expenditures on Human Development Index (Developed VS Developing Nations). Journal of Economic Growth and Development Research, Vol. 2, 37-50. [in Perison] –##- Agarwal, p. (2006). Higher Education in India: The Need for Change. Working Paper, 180, Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations, NewDelhi. ##- Ahad  Hassan, A. (2016). Human Capital and Economic Growth of Pakistan. Business & Economic Review:Vol.8( 1),77-86. ##- Akbarmousavi, S. & J. Haghighat. (2014).  Estimate time series of human capital based on average years of schooling (A case study of Iran, 1978-2013). Journal of Applid Economics Studis in Iran, Vol, 17, 149- 168. [in Perison] ##- Aleemran, R & S. A. Aleemran.  (2011).  Measurment The Impact of Human Capital Promotion on Economic Growth in Selected Countries of OPEC. Journal of Roshd-e- Fanavari, Vol, 8. 41-53. [in Perison] ##- Arabi, Z & A. Kazemi. (2013). The Effect of Human Development Index on Iranian GDP. Journal of Economic Growth and Development Research, Vol. 5, 109-124. [in Perison]  ##- Asadi, A. & S. M. Esmaeil. (2013). The Impact of Human Development Index on Economic Growth in Iran (Based on Markov – Switching Model).  Journal of Economic Growth and Development Research, Vol. 3, 89-104. [in Perison] ##- Basu, S. (1997). The Conservatism Principle and the Asymmetric Timeliness of Earnings. Journal of Accounting & Economics, vol. 24(1), 3-37. ##- Birdsal, N., G. Ross & R. Sabot. (1995). Inequality and growth reconsidered: lessons from East Asia. World Bank, Economic Review,Vol. 9(3), 447-508. ##- Central Bank of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Tehran. [in Perison] ##-  Costantini, V. & C. Martini. (2009). A Modified Environmental Kuznets Curve for Sustainable Development Assessment Using Panel Data. International Journal of Global Environmental Issues, vol. 10(1/2), 84-122. ##- Costantini, V. & S. Monni. (2008). Environment, human development and economic growth. Ecological Economics, Vol. 64(4), 867-880. ##- Daghighiasli, A., Z. Bradal. & N. Safdari. ( 2009). The Estimate Human Development Index with the Use of Fuzzy Logic, Journal of  Financial Economics, Vol, 13,  25- 47. [in Perison]   ##-  Daniela, M. & C. Oana. (2015). Correlation between  Human Development and Economic Growth. Constantin Brancusi University, Faculty of Economics, vol.1(1), 118- 122. ##-  Duflo, E. (2001). Schooling and Labor Market Consequences of School Construction in Indonesia: Evidence from an Unusual Policy Experiment,vol. 91(4), 795-813. ##- Elspeth, H., G. Kara-Fai & A. Sharpe. (2012). The Human Development Index in Canada: Estimates for the Canadian Provinces and Territories, 2000-2011. CSLS Research Report 2012-2, Ottawa. ##- Emadzadeh,M. (2002). Economics of Education. Tehran, Ney Press.##-  Escosura, L.P. (2013). Human Development in Africa: A Long- Run Perspective. Journal of Exploration in Economics History, vol. 50(2), 179-204. ##- Fotros, M. H. & A. Torkmeni. (2012). Modified Human Development and Sustainability of Economic Growth: A Comparative Study  of  Selected  Developed and Developing Countries. Journal of Economic Growth and Development Research, Vol. 2, 33-50. [in Perison] ##- Frazier, J. (1997). Sustainable Development:Modern Elixir or Sack Dress? Environmental Conservation, vol.24 (2), 182-193. ##- Haaryani Ardakani, M. (2005). Economic Development and Planning. Tehran, Avai Noor Press. [in Perison] ##- Haq, M. U. (1976). The Poverty Curtain-Choices for the Third World. Columbia University Press, New York, p: 35. ##- Imran, M. B., S. Bano & M. Azeem. (2012). Relationship between human capital and economic growth: Use of cointegration approach. Journal of Agriculture & Social Sciences,vol. 8(4), 135-138. ##- Jafari, A. & H. Shabazi. (2014). A review of fuzzy inference algorithms. 4th National Conference on New Ideas in Electrical Engineering. Isfahan Islamic Azad University. [in Perison] ##- Jafarisamimi, A. & Raisi, Z. ( 2016). The Nonlinear Impact of Human Development Index on Economic Sustainability in developed countries. Journal of Econometric Modelling,  Vol,2. 65- 98. [in Perison] ##-  Kovacevic, M. (2011). Review of HDI Critiques and Potential Improvements. UNDP: HDR. Research Paper 2010/33. ##- Lilly, H. ( 2013). Fuzzy Control and Identification,Translat by Mahmoud Jorabian & Milad Hemmatian, Tehran, Neyaz Dansh Press.##- Lucas, E. (1988). On the Mechanics of Economic Development. Journal of Monetary Economics,vol. 22(1), 3-42. ##- Mahmoudi, V. (2009).  The Relationship between Economic Growth and Human Development.  Journal of Political and Economic Ettelaat,  Vol. 251, 150- 157. [in Perison] ##- Management and Planning Organization. (1998).  First Human Development Report of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Tehran. [in Perison] ##- Mukherjee, S. &  G. A.  Chakrabort. (2010). Is there any Relationship between Economic Growtg and Human Development? Evidences from Indian States. MPRA Paper 22997, University Library of Munich. Germany, 1-27. ##- Nayak, P. (2008). Human Development: Concept and Measurement, Economic Growth and Human Development in North East India. Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 3-18. ##- Noori Naeini, M., H. Ghasemi. & M.S.  Kazemi.  (2016). Examinationof Affecting Factors on Iran’s Human Development Index Using Bayesian  Model Averaging Approach. Journal of Economic Growth and Development Research, Vol. 29, 45-60. [in Perison] ## - Pronce,C. & F. D. Ramirez(2009). Intelligent Control Systems with LabVIEW. Spring Science & Business Media,2009. ISBN 978-1-84882-684-7. ## - Psacharopolous, G. (1994). Returns to investment in education: a global update. World Development,vol. 22 (9), 1325-1343. ##-  Rains, Gustav., F. Stewart & A. Ramirez. (2000). Economic Growth and Human Development. World Development, vol. 28(2), 197-219. ##-   Ramirez, A., G. Ranis & F.  Stewart. (1998). Human Development and Economic Growth. Working Paper No. 8.Yale University. ##-  Ranis, G. (2004). Human Development and Economic Growth, Economic Growth Center. Center Discussion Paper, No 887, 1-13. ##- Ravallion, M. (1997). Good and Bad Growth: The Human Development Reports. The World Bank, Washington D. C, U.S.A., World Development, vol. 25(5), 631-638. ##- Rozbehan, M. (2014). The Basics of Economic Development. Tehran, Mehrabannashr Press. [in Perison] ##- Sadeghihi, H., A. Assri. & A. Masaeli. (2009). Introducing a New Approach to Estimate Welfare Index in Iran: Using Fuzzy Logic. Journal of Economic Research, Vol. 10,143-166. [in Perison] ##- Sarlak, H & K. Hazhirkaini. (2013). The Effects of and Health Expenditure on Economical Growth in Iran s’ Provinces. Journal of Applid Economics Studis in Iran, Vol, 4, 171- 185. [in Perison] ##-  Sen, A. (1999). Development as Freedom. New York: Knopf. ##- Sobhani, H. ( 1992). Return on Educational Investments. Journal of Economic Research, Vol. 2, 73-96. [in Perison] ##- Stanton, A. (2007). The Human Development Index: A History. the Department of Economics at the University of Massachusetts-Amherst, Amherst, MA 01002. ##- Strauss, j. (1986). Does Better Nutrition Raise Farm Productivty? The Journal of Political Economic, vol. 94(2), 297 -330. ##- Streeten, p. (1981). First Thing First, Meeting Basic Human Need in Developing Countries. Published for the World Bank by Oxford University Press. ISBN-13: 978-0195203691. ##- Sumathi, S. & S. Paneerselvam. (2010). Computational intelligence paradigms. theory & applications using MATLAB: CRC Press, 2010. ##- Suri, T. & M.A.  Boozer. (2011). Paths to Success: The Relationship between Human Development and Economic Growth. World Development, vol.39(4), 506-522. ##- Taghavi, M. & Mohammadi, H. ( 2006). The Effect of Human Capital on Economic Growth:Case of Iran. Journal of Economic Research,  Vol, 6. 15- 42. [in Perison]  ##-  United Nations Development Programme. (UNDP): 1990, 1999, 2010, 2011, 2015 Human Development Report. ##-  Wang. L.X.(1999). A course in fuzzy systems. Prentice-Hall Press,USA,1999. ISBN-10: 0135408822. ##-  Yakunina, R.p. & G. A.   Bychkov. (2015). Correlation Analysis of the Components of the Human Development Index across Countries. Journal of Procedia Economics and Finance, 24, 766-771. ##- Yoshihisa, G. & Y. Hayami. (1999). Accumulation of education in modern economic growth: A comparison of Japan with the United States, 1888-1995. ADB Institute working paper series, 4, Tokyo: Asian Development Bank Institute, 1-18. ##