بررسی اثرات غیرمستقیم فساد بر رشد اقتصادی با تأکید بر شاخص ادراک فساد

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه بو علی سینا

2 دانشگاه بوعلی سینا

چکیده

ادبیات فساد و اثرات آن بر رشد اقتصادی سابقه طولانی دارد، به‏ویژه از دهه 1990 به بعد ابعاد موضوع گسترش یافته و بیشتر مطالعات براثر مستقیم فساد بر رشد اقتصادی متمرکز شده‏اند درحالی‌که پیرامون شناسایی اثر غیرمستقیم فساد بر رشد اقتصادی مطالعات چندانی انجام نشده است. لذا هدف از این پژوهش، بررسی اثرات غیرمستقیم فساد بر رشد اقتصادی با تأکید بر شاخص ادراک فساد و همچنین برآورد مدل اندازه‏گیری به تفکیک کشورهای رانتی و غیر‏رانتی است. برای این منظور، از داده‏های مرتبط با شاخص ادراک فساد (CPI) سازمان شفافیت بین‌الملل، در 53 کشور منتخب با اقتصادهای رانتی و غیررانتی، طی سال‏های 2013 – 1996 و همچنین به‏کارگیری روش تخمین معادلات همزمان (3SLS) استفاده شده است. نتایج پژوهش نشان داد که شاخص فساد (CPI) دارای اثر منفی غیرمستقیم بر رشد اقتصادی کشورهای موردمطالعه است و انتقال اثر از طریق عوامل واسطه‏ای و تأثیرگذار سرمایه‌گذاری، سرمایه انسانی، هزینه‌های دولت و بی‌ثباتی سیاسی معنی‌دار است. همچنین در مقایسه بین کشورهای رانتی و کشورهای غیر رانتی، اثر غیرمستقیم فساد بر رشد اقتصادی از طریق هر چهار عامل واسطه‏ای به‌صورت مجموع در کشورهای رانتی بیشتر از کشورهای غیررانتی طی سال‏های موردمطالعه بوده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

A Study of Indirect Corruption’s Effect Channels on Economic Growth; Using Corruption Perception Index

چکیده [English]

Abstract
Literature review on corruption and its effect on economic growth has a long history, especially after 90’s decade, tendencies towards this filed increased rapidly. Most of the researches focus on the direct effect of corruption on economic growth and there are limited studies on indirect effect of corruption on economic growth. So in this research we are looking for transitions channels of indirect effect, and also we estimate rentier and non-rentier economies in separate groups and compare their differences. For this purpose, the data of Corruption Perception Index (CPI) from Transparency International, in the 53 selected rentier and non-rentier economies, during the years 2013-1996 is used. We also used simultaneous equations estimation method (3SLS). The results showed that the corruption index (CPI) has an indirect negative effect on economic growth in the study and most important transitions channels are investment, human capital, government spending and political instability.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Corruption
  • Economic Growth
  • Transition Channels of Corruption
  • Simultaneous Equations System

پناهی، حسین و اشرف امینی. (1390). دولت رانتی، اقتصاد دولتی، فرهنگ سیاسی و سرمایه اجتماعی در ایران. فصلنامه مطالعات سیاسی و بین‌الملل، 7(1): 94-59.## رهبر، فرهاد، فضل‌الله میرزاوند و غلامرضا زال پور. (1381). بازشناسی عارضه فساد مالی، ماهیت، گونه‌ها، پیامدها و آموزه‌های تجربی. تهران، مؤسسه نشر جهاد، صفحه 8. ##صادقی، حسین، عباس عصاری و وحید شقاقی شهری. (1389). اندازه‏گیری فساد مالی در ایران با استفاده از منطق فازی (رویکرد اقتصادی). پژوهشنامه اقتصادی، 10(4): 174-139. ##صباحی، احمد و ملک الساداتی، سعید. (1388)، اثر کنترل فساد مالی بر رشد اقتصادی. پژوهشنامه بازرگانی، 53(14)،  158-131. ##صیادزاده، علی و زهرا علمی. (1390). رابطه فساد و سرمایه اجتماعی در الگوهای رشد. فصلنامه علمی پژوهشی رفاه، 50(2): 35-7. ##کردلو، محمدرضا. (1384)، فساد مالی، فصلنامه دانش حسابرسی، 25(16)، 41-62. ##

Abed, G. & H. Davoodi. (2000). Corruption, Structural Reforms and Economic Performance in the Transition Economies. IMF Working Paper No. 00/132. ##Ades, A. & R. Di Tella. (1997). National Champions and Corruption: Some Unpleasant Interventionist Arithmetic. The Economic Journal, 107)443(, 1023-1042. ##Aidt, T., J. Dutta & V. Sena. (2008). Governance Regimes, Corruption Aand Growth: Theory and Evidence. Journal of Comparative Economics, 36(2): 195-220. ##Aisen, A. & F. Veiga. (2013). How does Political Instability Affect Economic Growth? European Journal of Political Economy, 29(7): 151-167. ##Alesina, A. & R. Wacziarg. (1998). Openness, Country Size and Government. Journal of public Economics, 69(3): 305-321. ##Al-Samarrai, S. (2006). Achieving Education for All: How Much Does Money Matter? Journal of International Development, 18: 179-206. ##Auty, R. (2001). Resource Abundance and Economic Development. Oxford University Press, New York, 630. ##Baldacci, E., B. Clements, S. Gupta & Q. Cui. (2008). Social Spending, Human Capital and Growth in Developing Countries. World Development. 36(8): 1317–1341. ##Barro, R. (1991). Economic Growth in a cross-section of countries. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 106)2(, 43-407. ##Barro, R. & X. Sala-i-Martin. (1995). Economic Growth, MIT Press, U.S. ##Caselli, F. (1996). Reopening The Convergence Debate: A New Look at Cross-Country Growth Empirics. Journal of Economic Growth, 1(3): 363-89. ##De Vaal, A. & W. Ebben. (2011). Institutions and The Relationship Between Corruption and Economic Growth. Rev. Dev. Econ., 15: 108–123. ##Dreher, A. & T. Herzfeld. (2005). The Economic Costs of Corruption: A Survey and New Evidence. Working Paper 0506001, Public Economics, Econ WPA##Dzhumashev, R. (2014). Corruption and Growth: The Role of Governance, Public Spending and Economic Development. Economic Modelling, 37, 202-215. ##Easterly, W. & R. Levine. (1997). Africa's Growth Tragedy: Policies and Ethnic Divisions. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 112(4): 1203-1250. ##Ebben, E. & A. Vall. (2009), Institution and the Relation between Corruption and Economic Growth, NiCE Working Paper 09-104, January 2009. ##El Anshasy, A. & M. Katsaiti. (2013). Natural Resources And Fiscal Performance: Does Good Governance Matter? Journal of Macroeconomics, 37: 285-298. ##Elliott, K.A. (1997). Corruption as an International Policy Problem: Overview and Recommendations. Institute of International Economics (U.S.): 175-181. ##Gupta, S., H.R. Davoodi & E.R. Tiongson. (2001). Corruption and The Provision of Health Care and Education Services. The Political Economy of Corruption, ed. by A.K. Jain, London: Rutledge: 111-141. ##Gupta, S., M. Verhoeven & E. R. Tiongson. (2002). The Effectiveness of Government Spending on Education and Health Care in Developing and Transition Economies. European Journal of Political Economy. 18: 717-737. ##Gylfason, T. (2001). Natural Resource and Economic Growth: What is The Connection? CES info Working Paper, No 530. ##Haque, M.E. & R. Kneller. (2008). Public Investment and Growth: The Role of Corruption. Centre for Growth and Business Cycle Research Discussion Paper Series 98, Economics, Univeristy of Manchester. ##Heckelman, J.C. & B. Powell. (2010). Corruption and the Institutional Environment for Growth. Comparative Economic Studies, 52(3): 351-378. ##Hessami, Z. (2014). Political corruption, Public Procurement and Budget Composition: Theory and Evidence from OECD Countries. European Journal of Political Economy, 34: 372-389. ##Jain, A. k. (2001). Corruption: A Review. Journal of Economic Surveys, 15(1): 71-121. ##Johnson, S., D. Kaufmann, J. McMillan & C. Woodruff. (2000). Why Do Firms Hide? Bribes and Unofficial Activity After Communism. Journal of Public Economics, 76: 95-520. ##Kaufmann, D. & S.J. Wei. (2000). does 'Grease Money' Speed up the Wheels of Commerce? IMF Working Papers, NO 00/64. ##Kaufmann, D., A. Kray & P. Zoido-Lobaton. (1999). Governance Matters: World Bank Policy Research. Working Paper, No 2196. ##Lambsdorff, J.G. (1999). Corruption in International Research; A Review. Transparency International Working Paper, Berlin. www.Transparency.de[10.11.00]. ##Levine, R. & D. Renelt. (1992). A Sensitivity Analysis of Cross-Country Growth Regressions. American Economics Review, 82(4): 942-63. ##Mankiw, G., D. Romer & D. Weil. (1990). A Contribution to the Empirics of Economic Growth. NBER Working Paper No. 3541. ##Marhubi, F.A. (2000). Corruption and Inflation. Economics Letters, 66 (2), 199-202. ##Mauro, P. (1995). Corruption and Growth. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 110(3):  681-712. ##Mauro, P. (1998). Corruption And The Composition of Government Expenditure. Journal of Public economics, 69(2): 263-279. ##Mendez, F. & F. Sepulveda. (2006). Corruption, Growth and Political Regimes: Cross Country Evidence. European Journal of Political Economy, 22(1): 82-98. ##Meon, P.G. & L. Weill. (2010). Is Corruption Efficient Grease? World Development, 38(3): 244-259. ##Mo, P.H. (2001). Corruption and Economic Growth. Journal of Comparative Economics, 29: 66-79. ##Montinola, G. & R.W. Jackman. (2002). Sources of Corruption: A Cross Country Study. British Journal of Political Science, 32: 147–170.  ##Mulloy, P. (1999). Statement on corruption Delivered by Assistant Secretary of Commerce. OSCE Review Conference, Istanbul. ##Pellegrini, L. & R. Gerlagh. (2004). Corruption's Effect on Growth and Its Transmission Channels. Kyklos, 57(3): 429-56. ##Pellegrini, L. (2011). The Effect of Corruption on Growth and Its Transmission Channels. In Corruption, Development and The Environment, Chapter 4: 53-74. ##Rajeev, K.G. & A. Nelson. (2012). Corruption and Government Size: A Disaggregated Analysis. Journal of Business and Economics, 28(1): 107-120. ##Rajkumar, A.S. & V. Swaroop. (2008). Public Spending and Outcomes: Does Governance Matter? Journal of Development Economics, 86(1): 96-111. ##Rijckeghem, C.V. & B. Weder. (1997). Corruption and the Rate of Temptation: Do Low Wages in The Civil Service Cause Corruption? IMF Working Paper, No WP/97/73. ##Rothstein, B. & EM. Uslaner. (2005). All for All: Equality, Corruption, and Social Trust. World Politics, Cambridge Univ Press. ##Serra, D. (2006). Empirical Determinants of Corruption: A Sensitivity Analysis. Journal of Public Choice, 126(1/2), 225-256. ##Shleifer, A. & RW. Vishny. (1993). Corruption. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 108(3): 599-617. ##Stavros, K. (2006). The Shadow Economy and Corruption in Greecesouth-Eastern Europe. Journal of Economics, 1: 61-80. ##Swaleheen, M. (2012). Curbing Corruption for Higher Growth: The Importance of Persistence. Journal of Economics letters, 116: 255-257. ##Tanzi, V. & H. Davoodi. (1997). Corruption Public Investment and Growth. IMF Working Paper, No 97/139, Washington D.C. ##Tanzi, V. (1998). Corruption around the world: causes, consequences, scopes and cures.IMF Staff Papers, 45(4), Pp. 559-594. ##Tavares, J. & R. Wacziarg. (2001). How Democracy Affects Growth. European Economic Review, 45(8): 1341-78. ##Tsani, S. (2013). Natural Resources, Governance and Institutional Quality: The Role of Resource Funds. Journal of Resources Policy, 38: 191-195. ##UNESCO. (2002). Ethics and Corruption in Education. Results from the Expert Workshop (Paris, France, November 28-29, 2001). Policy Forum on Education. ##Wacziarg, R. (2001). Measuring the Dynamic Gains From Trade. World Bank Economic Review, 15(3): 393-429. ##World Bank. (1997). Helping Countries Combat Corruption: The Role of the World Bank. P. 8. The World Bank, Washington D.C. ##